Russia and Qatar will remain hosts of the next two World Cups after FIFA, soccer’s Zurich-based governing body, said its investigation into allegations of corruption in the award of the tournaments failed to find any evidence of significant wrongdoing. The leader of the probe, former U.S. Attorney Michael Garcia, complained that FIFA’s report didn’t reflect his conclusions and said he would take his objections to its appeals committee. There’s concern that the 2018 World Cup in Russia could become a flashpoint like the 2014 Sochi Olympics, which took place amid concerns about graft and civil rights, and were followed by the standoff over the country’s actions in Ukraine. There were also calls to strip Qatar of the 2022 event amid a drumbeat of claims that it bought the tournament. The U.K.’s Sunday Times newspaper said documents and e-mails show that more than $5 million in bribes was paid to help bring the World Cup to the tiny desert emirate, where summer temperatures reach 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 Celsius). Qatar denies the allegations, and FIFA’s report suggested some of the claims were not substantiated. Qatar plans to lavish $200 billion on air-conditioned stadiums and related infrastructure, and there are reports of deaths and abuse of migrant workers. The tournament will probably be moved to the winter instead of June to avoid the searing heat, upsetting the professional league schedules. Sepp Blatter, the head of FIFA, has admitted the choice of Qatar was “a mistake.”
Disputes over where to hold the World Cup have dogged the event since it was first played in 1930, when the selection of Uruguay resulted in only four European teams making the three-week trip for the tournament. Eight years later, Uruguay and Argentina boycotted the 1938 competition because it was given to Europe for the second straight time. FIFA experimented with a rotation around the various continents; now it will take bids only from those continents that haven’t hosted either of the last two tournaments. Despite claims by politicians, recent history shows there is little — if any — financial benefit to hosting the World Cup. South Africa, for example, recouped just a 10th of the money it spent on stadiums and infrastructure for the 2010 tournament, the first in Africa, though it provided a much-needed upgrade to the transportation system. Allegations about the award to Qatar, the first in the Middle East, began to surface soon after it beat competition from the U.S., Australia, South Korea and Japan in 2010. While Canada, Colombia, Mexico and the U.S. are considering making bids for the 2026 tournament, the U.S. doesn’t plan to submit an offer unless rules are changed to provide more transparency in the voting.
Spreading the World Cup around the globe drives the sport’s development, and FIFA’s Blatter says pushing into “new lands” creates an opportunity for countries to showcase their culture and traditions on an international stage. Critics of the selection process cite both institutional and philosophical problems. Some highlight the money-losing proposition for developing nations — such as Brazil — that might spend the funds in other ways. Others say the selection process is made a farce by corruption, a problem that taints many international sporting events, including the Olympics. While FIFA says it wants to root out the problems and has made changes to its corporate governance, some critics say the moves haven’t gone far enough. Corporate sponsors such as Sony and Adidas — which provided a total of $404 million of sponsorship money to FIFA in 2013 — pressed the soccer body to fully investigate the allegations about Qatar’s bid. Emirates, the Dubai-based airline, dropped its sponsorship of FIFA in November.
The Reference Shelf
- An Amnesty International report about workers’ rights in Qatar.
- “Brazil’s Dance With the Devil,” a 2014 book by Dave Zirin.
- A report on the impact of the 2006 World Cup in Germany, and South Africa’s report about the 2010 tournament. A study by the accounting firm KPMG that includes an analysis of the 2010 event in South Africa and a Bloomberg News article about its legacy for Johannesburg commuters.
- John Oliver, host of “Last Week Tonight” on HBO, ranted about FIFA in a June 2014 broadcast.