The Tea Party calls itself “a spontaneous force” and touts support from small donors, but significant factions are bankrolled by millionaires and billionaires. Half a dozen national groups have emerged as centers for organizing and fundraising. These groups have prompted criticism that the Tea Party spirit has been co-opted by leaders who are as focused on fattening their wallets as electing candidates. Core beliefs tend to lean toward libertarian strains. Various factions don’t always agree with one another, particularly on issues like immigration. Many in the movement hold positions that overlap with the religious right, though Tea Party groups are more likely to quote the U.S. Constitution than the Bible.
The Tea Party’s birth is often listed as Feb. 19, 2009, during the depths of the recession. That morning, CNBC’s Rick Santelli summoned memories of the Boston Tea Party, the 1773 revolt by American colonials against British taxation without representation. In a rant from the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, he asked why Americans should have to “subsidize the losers’ mortgages” by propping up Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Traders around him began cheering. “We’re thinking about having a Chicago tea party in July,” Santelli continued. The fuse was lit and local activists began using the Internet to organize. Fox News amplified the discontent, with Glenn Beck and Sean Hannity stoking anger at the bailout of banks and other financial institutions. Other news organizations took notice during the summer of 2009, when House passage of a bill to create pollution markets and congressional debate over health-care reform unleashed more conservative anger and activists began disrupting public meetings held by members of Congress.
Democrats and some establishment Republicans see the Tea Party as an obstructionist fringe willing to go to destructive extremes to get its way, even shutting down the federal government. They also cite the Tea Party’s opposition to raising the federal debt ceiling, immigration-law revisions, Hurricane Sandy recovery funds and farm legislation as examples. Among Tea Party adherents, deal-making and compromise are often equated with weakness and a dereliction of constitutional obligations. They say their perseverance has narrowed the federal deficit and kept spending down. In 2014, the business and establishment wing of the Republican Party had the upper hand and was able to nominate candidates it wanted on ballots in November. Defeating Tea Party candidates became easier because the brand has tarnished with time. It was blamed for the unpopular government shutdown in 2013 and for backing weak candidates who kept Republicans from winning the Senate in 2012. In November 2010, arguably the movement’s high point, 32 percent of Americans surveyed by Gallup said that they considered themselves Tea Party supporters. That number had fallen to 19 percent by November 2014.
The Reference Shelf
- Bloomberg News looked at the transformation of two important Tea Party groups as the 2014 political season began.
- Cato Institute pollsters concluded in 2013 that the Tea Party is a libertarian movement focused on economic rather than social issues.
- From Bloomberg Businessweek, “The Tea Party’s Pyrrhic Victory.”
- A Washington Post article: “Has Donald Trump revived the tea party? Not quite.”
- An American Spectator article makes the case that Andrew Jackson was the first Tea Party president.