In the hard-hit southern tier of the European Union, youth unemployment hit highs of more than 50 percent in Spain and close to 60 percent in Greece, and by some estimates was worse than in the Great Depression. Even as Spain recovered, its youth jobless rate didn’t fall below 50 percent until the spring of 2015. In the U.S., unemployment in mid-2015 among 20- to 24-year-olds was still more than double the national rate, and for black youths it ranged up to 16.6 percent. Not only the unemployed were hurt by the downturn: In 2012 and 2013, only 44 percent of young U.S. college graduates held jobs commensurate with their education — meaning they were pushing less-skilled workers down the ladder or into unemployment. The natural churn in the labor market also has been unusually slow, with fewer people quitting jobs and fewer new hires, reducing the chances for job-hopping that is a key avenue to early career advancement.
No one ever thought recessions were a great time to find a first job. But recent research shows that the damage to career trajectory is surprisingly long lasting. Even 17 years later, members of classes that completed college in the U.S. during the 1981-82 recession earned an average of 10 percent less than colleagues who got their starts in boom times, and fewer of them held professional or prestigious jobs. By then, the cumulative cost of a poorly timed graduation already had exceeded $100,000 on average. The impact on earnings of Stanford Business School graduates was found to persist at least 20 years. Following 20 graduating classes of Canadian college students across two recessions showed that the biggest contributor to the lag was initial jobs that offered poor positioning on career and salary ladders. Lower-skill college graduates have a particularly hard time making up lost ground, even when the economy booms. Another study of Japanese workers also found persistent effects on those who start work during a recession.
Europe’s leaders have called youth unemployment a catastrophe for the continent. But a plan put forward by France and Germany to put young people to work by spurring business lending that they compared to the U.S.’s New Deal of the 1930s was seen as a token effort with little new money behind it. Germany’s call for others to adopt its successful apprenticeship system generated wide interest, if little action. In the U.S. as well as Europe, calls for increased spending on jobs programs have been blocked by opposition to deficits by conservatives who argued that today’s young people would be the taxpayers stuck with the bill later. Diminished prospects for the young in southern Europe haven’t translated into large-scale political movements. In 2011, youths took to the streets in Spain and Greece, but those protests faded as the worst of the crisis passed. Emigration, particularly within the open borders of the European Union, provided a safety valve for social pressure, and young people continued to leave ailing countries like Italy even after economic recovery began. In the U.S., more young people may be staying in school till growth returns. In the Middle East, countries like Tunisia and Egypt continue to struggle to live up to the expectations of unemployed youths whose anger brought down governments across the region in 2011.
The Reference Shelf
- The Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University compiles research on the teen labor market.
- U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee: Unemployment Among Young Workers.
- A paper by the Economic Policy Institute on the dim job prospects of the Class of 2013.
- In depth looks at the situation in Europe by the Guardian and the New York Times.