Protest parties that got a lift from Europe’s debt crisis boosted their share of seats to about 30 percent in a May 2014 election from 20 percent in the previous vote five years earlier. Voters in bailed-out southern countries are angry at German-fashioned budget austerity and wealthier northern states oppose more EU encroachment on national powers. Seats in the Parliament are divided among EU states based on population. Within each country, they are awarded to parties according to the proportion of votes, a system that paves the way for insurgent national groups to harvest protest ballots. These include Nigel Farage’s U.K. Independence Party, which won its first seat in the House of Commons in October 2014, and the anti-euro, anti-immigration National Front of France under Marine Le Pen. Greece’s nationalist Golden Dawn, which entered the Greek legislature in 2012, gained its first EU seats in the 2014 vote. The stronger presence of fringe groups representing both the right and the ex-communist left could further shake up politics in their home countries and lead to less predictable, or gridlocked, EU legislation. Thanks to new rules, the election had a more direct influence on the choice of the president of the European Commission, the executive arm that proposes legislation and polices the EU’s single market.
Direct voting for the Parliament began in 1979 and is the second-biggest democratic exercise on Earth after India’s elections, extending from the Arctic circle to near the Middle East. Voters in 28 nations elected 751 lawmakers to a five-year term in the May 2014 ballot. A series of treaties has given the Parliament rights on par with those of national governments to amend, or veto, most proposed EU-wide laws. The bloc regulates areas including consumer protection, bank rescues, airline safety and workers’ rights, and many national laws stem from the need to comply with its rules. In the most recent ballot, voter turnout hit a record low of 42.5 percent, comparable to midterm U.S. congressional elections. Many EU citizens view lawmakers and bureaucrats in Brussels with suspicion and attention remains on better-known national personalities. News reports have focused on the Parliament’s more flamboyant members and its expensive once-a-month treks, dubbed the traveling circus, from Brussels, where it conducts most of its business, to its formal seat in Strasbourg, France.
Anti-EU parties in the Parliament have given voice to public disenchantment with the financial crisis and fears about low-wage foreign workers from newer members such as Romania and Bulgaria. The debate has spilled into national politics, notably in the U.K., where Prime Minister David Cameron has vowed to win back powers from Brussels and hold a referendum on Britain’s membership in the EU amid surging support for the anti-immigration U.K. Independence Party. Growing extremism has forced the mainstream parties that champion the EU, which for years took the appeal of the project for granted, to make their case more vigorously. They defend the free movement of people and argue that global economic forces require member states to become even more integrated. They also make the case that the Parliament, as the EU’s only directly elected institution, deserves even more clout.
The Reference Shelf
- Website of the European Parliament and its guide to elections.
- The Pew Research Center studied how Europeans view the EU.
- Bloomberg News article on the appeal of the U.K. Independence Party and its leader, Nigel Farage.
- “Delors: Inside the House That Jacques Built,” a 1994 biography of Jacques Delors, former president of the European Commission, by Charles Grant.
- “The Passage to Europe,” a 2013 book by Luuk van Middelaar provides a history of European politics.
- An Economist cover story on the European Parliament, and a blog post.