Islamic State, a jihadist group that emerged from the Iraqi branch of al-Qaeda, took responsibility for a series of attacks in Paris Nov. 13 that claimed the lives of at least 127 victims. Previously, the group, which holds large swaths of territory in Iraq and Syria on which it has declared a self-style caliphate, or Islamic state, had focused on what jihadists call the “near enemy,” its foes in the Muslim world. Al-Qaeda concentrated on attacking U.S. and European powers — the “far enemy” — in an effort to push them to abandon regimes bin Laden wanted to unseat. Even with periodic attacks in the non-Muslim world, the bloodiest battlegrounds remain Iraq and Syria. Jihadists also cause significant carnage in such places as Nigeria, Yemen, Somalia and the Philippines. The number of jihadist groups sharing al-Qaeda’s goals rose to 49 in 2013 from three in 1988. Increasingly, groups have pledged allegiance to Islamic State rather than al-Qaeda, which cut ties to its former affiliate in 2014. Although Islamic State practices extreme brutality — massacring civilians and executing prisoners — it’s been particularly effective at attracting recruits, not just from the Arab world but from the U.S., Europe and Chechnya. A U.S.-led coalition began airstrikes in August 2014 intended to help Iraqi forces and secular Syrian rebels contain the group. The U.S. announced in October 2015 that it would deploy special forces. After the Paris attacks, France bombed Raqqa, Syria, Islamic State’s de facto capital.
Bin Laden joined Afghan jihadists fighting their Russian occupiers in the 1980s to aid a Muslim nation that had become a battleground in the Cold War. He recruited Arab volunteers who sought a purpose amid rampant unemployment and loss of hope in nations headed by iron-fisted leaders. Those factors would draw fighters again to Afghanistan and to Iraq when the U.S. invaded after Sept. 11, and to Syria when turmoil engulfed that nation in 2011. Al-Qaeda’s attacks and ideology also energized militant Muslims farther away, in places such as southeast Asia, the Sahel region of Africa and Nigeria. With the Arab Spring, the erosion of authority in police states such as Libya, Syria and, briefly, Egypt, gave battle-seasoned fighters greater freedom to return home. Libya’s chaos provided jihadists a free flow of arms and a place to train.
At least before the Paris attacks, some foreign-policy analysts argued that direct action by the U.S. and its allies against Islamic State lent support to the jihadists’ case that foreign powers prop up illegitimate regimes. Those skeptical of military intervention, including drone strikes, note that it often produces civilian casualties, which can spur the recruitment of new jihadists. Supporters of intervention say that even without orchestrated attacks on their soil, U.S. and Europe governments have much at stake: their diplomatic missions, businesses and expatriate citizens remain targets where jihadists operate. Westerners recruited and trained by them may return home and commit atrocities. The jihadists’ use of social media has inspired terrorist attacks by radicalized individuals with no known tie to any organization. FBI Director James Comey said in July 2015 that such attacks, inspired by Islamic State, pose a greater threat to the U.S. than operations organized by al-Qaeda. Governments that are the main target of jihadists are often ill-equipped to face the threat alone. At the same time, foreign firepower may give authorities the comfort to put off political reforms that could diminish the appeal of jihadism and thus tackle it at its roots.
The Reference Shelf
- A study by the Rand Corp. tracking the growth of al-Qaeda-like jihadist groups.
- “Temptations of Power,” a 2014 book from the Brookings Institution’s Shadi Hamid on the rise of Islamist movements after the Arab Spring.
- A report by the Congressional Research Service on Islamic State and U.S. policy.
- Stanford University’s “Mapping Militants” project, which traces the evolution of militant organizations and the connections between them.
- Bloomberg QuickTakes on jihad, the Third Iraq War, Iraqi nationhood, Syria’s civil war, Egypt’s revolution, Yemen’s fault lines and Libya’s breakdown.
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